Monday, August 2, 2010

Ideas about Line Drawing

Description and Potential Objectives for Line Drawing: 
During the first class of this course students will be asked to develop line drawings that will depict various optional subject matter that could include either; objects, still-life, people, faces, interior and or exterior spaces. These line drawings should attempt to present a broad range of fluid line weights and descriptive line qualities (PLEASE NO SHADING, or TRANSLATION OF COLOUR, or SHADOWS to GRAYSCALE)

The objective for these line drawing assignments is to develop a trial and error observational drawing process that will emphasise a sense of space, an attempt at accurate proportions, and an introduction to perspective and mark making. It is also expected that each student’s personal sensibility of line will be enhanced by the investigation of line drawing styles, variations of line weight, and descriptive line qualities.

Purpose of Line Drawing Assignments:
The purpose of line drawing assignments are to introduce, review and develop observational drawing skills and in particular to learn how to see. Inevitably this type of  drawing involves a process that requires adjustments. In most cases line drawing will be easier to edit than a carefully rendered (shaded) drawing. Line may be an end in itself and for the next  week and a half line drawing will be considered the foundation or the armature of most drawing processes.

Line Drawing as a Learning Process (Embrace "Errors" as Part of the Drawing):
Focus on the learning process. Do not judge your drawing as good or bad but instead consider what new knowledge has been acquired from the earlier stage of the initial drawing or from previous drawings in the course and continually apply newly acquired knowledge to the next drawing or the next stage in the drawing you are currently working on. Emphasize observational drawing processes that show adjustments and that demonstrate trial and error processes. Please do not be concerned with the desire to have a clean and perfectly finished drawing. Allow for variations of mark making and engage in the hand made process of drawing and the desired product will eventually emerge.

Thoughts to Anticipate in the Beginning Stages of Drawing: 
First get set up with a viewpoint (consider your field of vision) that will have a progression of forms from the foreground to the background. Anticipate initially describing basic shapes with light fluid lines using a sharp pencil. Keep in mind that the subject matter should only be described using line. During this initial stage anticipate that the entire drawing will eventually be mapped out with tentative lightly drawn basic shapes with restated lines. At times the drawing process will involve adjustments to the initial lines or marks by restating line. Mentally be prepared to avoid getting caught up in details and in erasing lines. Instead anticipate that the initial “mistakes” with line will be used as visual reference for the proceeding restated line.

Get into a mindset that line drawing and most other forms of drawing are a layering process (or that drawing is done in messy stages) and not as a neat and tidy product. As adjustments are made, restate lines and think of the drawing as: a record of thought processes in learning how to see, a record of a trial and error process and not some finished masterpiece. Be critical but do not be judgemental of your skills and your drawing. Generally accept that “mistakes” will be made and just learn to allow the mistakes to happen and move onto the next steps of restating, adjusting and layering the drawing.

Ideas about Line Drawing  (continued)

Where to Begin in the Drawing: 
Ideally start with a negative space and/or positive shape that are medium in size, simple in shape (box like or rectangular in shape if possible) and located centrally in the drawing. Ideally this shape should be large and if possible located centrally in your viewpoint of the subject matter/environment. As well, ideally this shape should be located in the middle ground to foreground area. It is unlikely that the first shape can meet all these conditions but try to have as many of those conditions as possible to start that first shape.

Tentatively describe this first shape with restated lines. In the first layer of the drawing use your pencil (and/or by eye) to measure the proportions of basic shapes. Compare the height and width of the initial shape. Typically the first tentatively drawn shape will be the foundation to the drawing, because that first shape will be used to compare proportions of other shapes. At the beginning stages of the drawing compare shapes that are directly beside each other, so that the drawing is progressively building around and out from that first initial shape. Do not obsess on the first shape, once the entire drawing surface has been lightly and tentatively mapped out, then fine tune the initial shape.


Horizontal and Vertical Alignments:
In addition to measuring and comparing proportions to maximize accurate proportions also consider horizontal and vertical alignments of shapes, and the alignments of where beginning points and end points of straight lines are located. These alignments will be very helpful for determining angles, proportion and space issues.

Later Stages of the Drawing:
These latter stages in the drawing are only meant for the experienced drawer. The strategic placement of detail and the selected areas that de-emphasize detail, will aid in the presentation of space and the over all success of each drawing. Once all of the basic shapes are lightly drawn (considered with some measuring) and you have all of your subject matter covering your paper, slowly observe and depict the subtleties in the shapes with a restated line. It is at this point that you may begin to clarify your shapes by emphasizing a single line over restated lines that describe basic shapes. You may also decide where the darkest line should be placed and progressively allow for lines to become lighter as shapes progress back into the space.

Also when using a single line that depicts all the subtleties of that shape, one should be looking at the the subject matter as much as the paper. There should be a constant back and forth viewing of subject matter and drawing paper. Maintain a single viewpoint by keeping your head in the same position as much as you can. Finally at the later stages of the drawing, consider using a variety of line such as light and dark line, thin, thick, long fluid line, short, curved and organic, rigid and straight, open and closed line. In a single stroke of a line consider quick and slow applications of the pencil onto the paper with varying levels of pressure on the pencil.

Ideas about Line Drawing  (continued)

.Subject Matter in Relation to Space:
Also in the final stages of the drawing consider and imply where volumes and planes exist in space from your point of view. In order to convey representational space some shapes may need to be emphasized and other shapes may need to be de-emphasized.  Proportions, and in particular depicting certain areas with detail and using variety of line will be major factors in clarifying where subject matter will be emphasized in space. As well over lapping of volumes and parallel lines converging to a vanishing point will all aid in the illusion of space. It may also be necessary to de-emphasize shapes by lightening and or thinning out lines with your kneadable eraser. Consider these issues and techniques when depicting the progression of shapes from the closest areas in the foreground to the furthest area in the background.

Subject Matter when drawing outside:
Include architectural and landscape elements i.e.) parts and or entire trees, buildings, sidewalks, and grass. Selecting and depicting forms that will signal definite areas of foreground, middle ground, and background in the composition of the drawing will also be useful.

Supplies used for line drawing assignments:

Pencil HB and 2B  (possibly a 2H, or 3B, or 4B as well)

Pencil Sharpener

Cartridge paper 18 x 24 inches

kneaded eraser (use very sparingly)

Clips for attaching paper to support

Drawing board, or foam core, or portfolio to support paper while drawing

*Tracing Paper: For beginners please bring tracing paper (18 x 24 inches) in order for instructor to assist with drawing process of inexperienced drawers. Instructor will draw on tracing paper on top of each student's drawing to assist student with measuring and seeing proportions, finding initial shape to build composition and perspective. 

Investigating Perspective (Horizon Line and Vanishing Points in 1 Point and 2 Point Perspective)

In this example of a two point perspective all planes parallel in plan view have converging lines going to 2 points (vanishing points) in the image. As in many image examples such as this image a vanishing point or both points may be located outside the frame of the picture plane. As always these two vanishing points in a two point perspective are both positioned on the horizon line. For this assignment students will attempt to depict 4 examples which should include two examples of 2 point perspective and two examples of 1 point perspective. You may choose to complete this assignment with clear film over a photograph with converging lines, vanishing point(s) and a horizon line drawn by hand, or you may use photoshop and do a digital drawing on a digital photo of converging lines, vanishing point(s) and a horizon line and then print out the digital drawing/photo. Either way the idea for this assignment is take or find pictures and depict converging lines on photos that demonstrate a clear comprehension of both 1 Point and 2 Point Perspectives in an interesting, challenging and unique presentation. The example presented here demonstrates a clear understanding of 2 point perspective and even though shows many complex converging lines in a deep space should be more adventurous and unique in terms of subject matter and overall selection of space. Detail of 2 Point Perspective

Sunday, August 1, 2010

Negative Space Still Life: Examples and Ideas

This assignment is about drawing shapes (space/air) between and around the objects in the still life and model stand surface. As in previous assignments proportions and aligning shapes horizontally and vertically will be part of the process when developing this work. As in most drawings (and paintings) anticipate that mistakes will happen and try to enjoy the process that adjustments will be inevitable. 

Editing and adjusting this work will involve a back a forth process of using the black and the white.   Generally students will start with the black  and will generally use more  black  than the white. If you feel you are a person that will require many adjustments in your drawing/painting anticipate using more quantities of white and utilizing the back and forth process between the white and the black. 

Note: Ensure that the white paint which is purchased is good quality and is opaque when applied over the black paint. Ask a sales person at the art supply store if you are not sure. If the paint is not opaque it will not cover mistakes easily.

As in some artworks for  this course the drawing/painting in the above video demonstrates the idea of thinking about comparing proportions of shape, considering where the shapes line up with each other in terms of vertical and horizontal alignments. Most obviously demonstrated in this video is the first shape drawn starts in the center of the paper as the building block for the entire drawing. All shapes proceeding after the first shape will build out around from that first shape when comparing proportions from one shape to the other, and considering vertical and horizontal alignments of shapes to each other.

Selecting the Composition

Select an area of the still life (composition) that will give you a reasonable challenge and complex drawing with interesting shapes. Do not select the entire still life to draw. In most cases depicting the entire still life will be too difficult and will take an excessive amount of time.

The above example demonstrates an excellent choice of composition, use of interesting shape and over all demonstrates an expertise in depicting accurate proportions and comparing horizontal and vertical alignments.

In the above assignment the initial composition was too simple and not challenging enough. 99% of the time while in class students should never start their drawing over. Instead of starting over with this assignment  an additional sheet of paper was added to the drawing increasing the scale and visual impact towards the viewer. In the end the work demonstrates an excellent choice of composition and use of interesting shapes.
48 x 18 inches Acrylic on paper

The above drawing meets all the assignments despite having drawn the entire still life.

Unfortunately this drawing was damaged with multiple folds/wrinkles (bottom right corner)  Please ensure your drawings are not folded wrinkled or shredded on the edges due to a disregard for storage or transportation of work. Repair any tares when submitting work for presentation during critiques or for final evaluation of the work. In most contexts for this course if a damaged work is presented, over all the message sent is that the artist does not care about the work (and course) and that there is a lack of professionalism towards the project and objectives of the assignment. In most contexts presenting damaged work will negatively effect the evaluation of any work in this course.

The above work demonstrates a very good composition, proportions and and some use of editing and going back and forth with the white and the black. Overall this work is a little wrinkled from the over use of water mixed in with paint. This type of wrinkling is fine in most cases and in some contexts could become part of the language in an artwork. Sometimes excessive editing has occurred which causes a physical presence of paint (thick paint and mark making) Having a thickly painted work with some rough edges is fine provided the proportion, interesting shapes and composition objectives are achieved in the assignment.

Saturday, July 31, 2010

Examples of Rendered (Shaded) Drawings and Objectives:

The examples below focuses on light and shadow while simultaneously depicting surface qualities of texture, reflection and transparency. For any assignments regarding black and white rendering (shading) the strategic use of soft and hard edges, full range of grayscales, full range of mark making, articulation of detail (and progressive lack of detail) and different levels of high and low contrast will be required.

For these assignments it is also required to have a composition of subject matter that is unique and interesting but also integrates all the required assignment objectives in the work. As well allow for time to choose the appropriate objects. Pick objects that will allow for a clear and large areas of shadows to be present. If the shadows progress from light to dark that will be even better. Picking an object that presents interesting shadows and highlights is imperative to meet the objectives. If your object can also be thematic and not cliche while still addressing the objectives that will be a bonus.

Strategically using a full range of graphite from 2H to 6B, and having a kneaded eraser and light source such as a clip on lamp will be very useful for the success of the project.

Interior Design Student Work
The above graphite drawing demonstrates a refined rendering style that offers a strategic use of detail and high contrast in the foreground. As well the drawing progressively decreases in detail and contrast as the viewer reaches the background. As well due primarily to the increased contrast, the edges in the foreground appear sharper, while the edges of forms in the background begin to slightly dissolve. A very good drawing but more absorbing of line, greater range of soft to sharp edges and a clearer depiction of the three surfaces of texture, reflection and transparency is required.

Interior Design Student Work
The above graphite drawing demonstrates a strategic use of detail and high contrast in the foreground. As well the drawing progressively decreases in detail and contrast as the viewer reaches the background. As well the edges in the foreground are sharper and the edges of forms in the background are progressively dissolving into the background space. A very good drawing but clearer depiction of reflective and transparent surfaces are required.

Other Examples of Student Work
Below are some student examples of work from 1st year drawing courses at the school of art. The examples below offers ideas in terms of objects that may be used and include graphite as the medium to complete the drawing. Other examples below include the use of charcoal and chalk as well as black and white cote. There is also an example where a student has used a black paper and white chalk and conte as the main drawing tools. Some examples do not present objects that are transparent, reflective or textured but offer examples for other ideas that are required when depicting objects in other assignments.The above example presents a work that depicts a transparent, reflective objects. For the most part texture is represented on the base that the objects are placed on.

The above example presents a work that depicts a transparent, reflective and textured object.

The above example presents an exceptional work that depicts a transparent, reflective and textured object. The composition is very interesting and overall utilizes a combination of mixing white and black to achieve a grayscale as well as utilizing the white of the paper.

Detail of textured and transparent objects in previous drawing.

Detail of a reflective object in previous drawing.

The drawing above uses white drawing mediums on black paper to depict an excellent level of transparency and texture in objects.

The above example presents a very good depiction of reflective and transparent objects. As well the objects are given a context that suggest thematic content with the anticipation of the knife cutting into the vegetable. This work at a basic level begins to convey possible symbolic or metaphorical content.

The above is an example of a 16 step digital grayscale. All rendered black and white drawings are required to utilize the grayscale for each black and white material used in the course.

The grayscale in a drawing is achieved by layering a black medium and allowing different levels of the white of the paper to come through in a drawing, OR a grayscale is achieved by mixing black and white mediums to achieve the range presented in the above grayscale. Often drawings use a combination of both methods (utilizing the white of the paper AND mixing the white with black drawing mediums together)

Creating your own grayscale for each drawing medium will assist in learning about each drawing materials characteristics, plus will allow you to practice depicting and to be more sensitized to the full range of grays in a drawing. Once each grayscale is completed it can be used to compare grayscale levels in a drawing ultimately assisting in the overall success of any given drawing.

Value, Tints and Shades:
The drawings above demonstrates a depiction of value. Colour has been translated into grayscale. During most of the rendering assignments the objective will be to ignore translating colour and instead will focus on light and shadow and at times will depict surface qualities of texture, reflection and transparency.

Reflective Surface:
The above drawing demonstrates an exceptional depiction of an object with a reflective surface that has very difficult proportions to draw. For the most part there is very good strategic use of detail, edges (soft to sharp) and a good range of contrast and grayscale. Perhaps cropping the object has created some slight spatial confusion (often when a form is cropped at the picture's border it will optically move towards the viewer) but over all this work is an excellent example of a reflective object.

Ideas and Process:

Strategic use of contrast and levels of detail
The above drawing of garlic clover is unfinished and is not an example of reflective or transparent surface, but demonstrates some of the key objectives for drawing objects with light and shadow. The drawing demonstrates a strategic use of detail and high contrast in the foreground. As well the drawing progressively decreases in detail and contrast as the viewer reaches the background (the clover that is farthest form in the picture) As well the edges in the foreground are sharper and the edges of the clovers in the background are progressively dissolving into the background space.

The process of the above garlic drawing is also excellent. This process entailed drawing lightly and tentatively over the entire paper and then in the mid to later stages detail and daker tones were layered onto the drawing.

Strategic use of contrast and levels of detail (work in progress)

Strategic use of contrast, levels of detail and variations of soft and sharp edgesThe above drawing of a white porcelain object is also a good example of a white or an off-white object. With the exception of a vaguely drawn table plane in the foreground area the execution of the drawing fulfills the objectives of the assignment. The entire page is filled with various tones and a strong sense of mass (the objects forms) are depicted an atmosphere. Some parts of the above object appear to almost pop out from the page of the paper. This drawing as well demonstrates a strategic use of detail and high contrast in the foreground. As well the drawing progressively decreases in detail and in contrast as the viewer reaches the background and furthest edges of the object. As well the edges in the foreground (center of the object) are sharper and the outer edges of the object progressively dissolving into the background space. Overall this work is an excellent example of strategically depicting soft and sharp edges in relation to space.

Self-Portraits and Portraits

Advanced Drawing 1 Fall 2007

Advanced Drawing 1 Fall 2007

Advanced Drawing 1 Fall 2005

Advanced Drawing 1 Fall 2005

Advanced Drawing 1 Fall 2005